Reduced Ilmenite Oxidation

Effect of pre-oxidation on the carbothermic reduction of

The reduction studies of pre-oxidized ilmenite and original ilmenite concentrate can be divided into gas and coal based reduction For gas (H 2 , CO, CH 4 ) reduction, Vijay et al observed that the pre-oxidation of ilmenite concentrate improves its reducibility and lowers the reduction temperature considerably ( Vijay et al, 1996 )

Ilmenite–CO reduction kinetics - ScienceDirect

Sequential reduction and oxidation of preoxidized ilmenite at 812 °C with 25% CO and 21% O 2, respectively Based on past experience, the relative sensitivity of the mass spectrometer for a given species is a function of its concentration, but also the presence of other gases being measured, which we accounted for in our calibration of the MS

Ilmenite Reduction | Redox | Iron

Kazakhstan 865 it is oxidized ilmenite and pre-reduced ilmenite The syngas is fed into the shaft furnace as reducing gas Figure 7: "Macro" model An industrial process model of ilmenite pre-reduction is proposed based on the MIDREX® Process for direct reduced iron in a shaft furnace

Kinetics and mechanism of hydrogen reduction of ilmenite

The apparent activation energy of the hydrogen reduction of Panzhihua ilmenite was calculated to be 11756 kJ/mol, which was larger than that of synthetic ilmenite under the same reduction condition


This model could then be used to determine the feasibility of pre-reduction of ilmenite with natural gas on an industrial scale KEYWORDS: Ilmenite, reduction, natural gas, modeling 1 INTRODUCTION Due to dwindling sources of rutile (Ti02), ilmenite (FeTi03) is the major mineral source of titanium


The objective of this study was to establish the kinetic of both reduction and oxidation reactions taking place in the Chemical-Looping Combustion (CLC) process using ilmenite as oxygen carrier Because of the beneficial of the use of pre-oxidized ilmenite and the activation of the ilmenite during the redox cycles, both the reactivity of pre-

Ilmenite Activation during Consecutive Redox Cycles in

Ilmenite, a natural mineral composed of FeTiO3, is a low-cost and promising oxygen carrier (OC) for solid fuels combustion in a chemical-looping combustion (CLC) system The aim of this study is to analyze the behavior of ilmenite as an OC in CLC and the changes in its properties through redox cycles

E ffects of mechanical activation and oxidation­ reduction on

In the present work, the oxidation and reduction of Panxi ilmenite concentration were investigated, and the effects of mechanical activation on hydrochloric acid leaching b ehavior of untreated ilmenite concentration and oxidized­ reduced ilmenite concentration were also investigated

Hydrochloric acid leaching behavior of different treated

The effects of oxidation–reduction treatment and mechanical activation on the hydrochloric acid leaching performance of Panxi ilmenite concentration from Sichuan province of China were investigated

An electrochemical study of reduced ilmenite carbon paste

The anodic dissolution of reduced ilmenite has been studied using the carbon paste electrode tech- nique To understand the polarization behaviour of reduced ilmenite, the polarization behaviour of iron oxide and iron powder carbon paste electrodes has also been investigated It was shown that

Hydrochloric acid leaching behavior of different treated

Oxidation of ilmenite prior to reduction was also found to have decreased the activation energy of leaching from 43 kJ/mol, found for samples leached after reduction without oxidizing, to 30 kJ/mol

Becher process - Wikipedia

The Becher Process is an industrial process used to upgrade ilmenite to synthetic rutile The mineral , ilmenite, contains 55-65% titanium as TiO 2 , the rest being iron oxide The Becher process removes the iron oxide, leaving a residue of synthetic rutile , which is more than 90% TiO 2

Reduction of Ilmenite With Hydrogen | Titanium | Titanium

Reduction of Ilmenite with Hydrogen Y Zhao and F Shadman* Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 The kinetics and the mechanism of reduction of synthetic ilmenite by hydrogen in the temperature range of 807-1014 "C were investigated At temperatures below 876 "C, the temporal profiles of

Kinetics of leaching of oxidized and reduced ilmenite in

This was followed by leaching in 5% to 15% hydrochloric acid solution in temperature range of 30 to 75 °C for periods of up to 2 h The results were compared with those obtained by leaching of ilmenite reduced without oxidizing Oxidation prior to reduction of the ilmenite was found to increase both the extent and the rate of leaching

Influence of Pre-oxidation on Carbothermic Reduction

The pre-oxidation of Panzhihua ilmenite concentrate was investigated at 1073 K and 1273 K under air atmosphere The products of the pre-oxidation at 1073 K were Fe 2 O 3, TiO 2 and Fe 2 Ti 3 O 9, while Fe 2 O 3, TiO 2 and Fe 2 TiO 5 at 1273 K The influences of pre-oxidation on the carbothermic reduction were studied at 1473 K, 1573 K, 1673 K and 1773 K under argon atmosphere

Ilmenite Reduction Studies Using charcoal and Petroleum

reduction of titanium from +4 oxidation state to +3 oxidation state occurs above 1000°C with reduced atmosphere Hence, 900°C is taken as the optimum condition for the reduction studies 33 Reduction Efficiency with 20Time The reduction efficiency of ilmenite with varying the reduction time (5 min-30 min) is given in Table 7

Oxidation of Ammonia by Ilmenite under Conditions Relevant

The oxidation of ammonia to NOx and N2 was investigated under conditions that pertain to the fuel reactor during the chemical-lopping combustion of coal with ilmenite The catalytic decomposition of NH3, the oxidation of NH3 over ilmenite, and the reduction of NO by reduced ilmenite and NH3 were studied experimentally

Microwave reduction of oxidised ilmenite concentrates

The oxidation and reduction of iron in ilmenite concentrates between the ferrous and ferric states has been found to greatly enhance its chemical activity When reduced to the correct extent, iron can be preferentially extracted to yield a titanium rich beneficiate suitable for use as a feed for the production of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) pigments via the Chloride Process

Kinetics of gaseous reduction of ilmenite - Jones - 1975

Doki Yamaguchi, Liangguang Tang and Ken Chiang, Pre-oxidation of natural ilmenite for use as an oxygen carrier in the cyclic methane–steam redox process for hydrogen production, Chemical Engineering Journal, 322, (632), (2017)

The thermal equation of state of FeTiO3 ilmenite based on

larger than for the natural ilmenite (181 ± 7 and 165 ± 6 GPa, respectively), with pressure derivatives K 0′ = 3 ± 1 Our results, combined with literature data, suggest that the unit-cell volume of reduced ilmenite is significantly larger than that of oxidized ilmenite, whereas their thermoelastic parameters are similar


(3) Reduction of the iron content of the ilmenite to the metallic iron followed by corrosion with oxygen and ammonium chloride (4) Oxidation and reduction of ilmenite followed by hydrochloric acid leaching (MURSO process) (5) Roasting and magnetic separation …

Oxidation and Reduction of Iron-Titanium Oxides in

Abstract — Oxidation and Reduction of Iron-Titanium Oxides in Chemical Looping Combustion: A Phase-Chemical Description— Ilmenite (FeTiO 3) is being explored as an oxygen carrier in chemical looping processes Its reduction and oxidation are described by the …


Acta Metallurgica Slovaca, 9, 2003, 1 (13 - 20 ) 14 the rusting step the reduced ilmenite is subjected to oxidation by suspending it in NH4Cl solution followed by aeration when the iron oxide comes out, which can be separated

High Temperature Interaction Between H2O and Hydrothermal

The experimental data show that the process of oxidation of reduced ilmenite is feasible at high temperature giving rise to the formation of FeO and Fe 2 O 3 at different stages of oxidation The process occurs according to the reactions: Fe(s),

Ilmenite Chlorination - 911metallurgist

A typical commercial plant will produce around 136 000 kg/d of TiO2 product Theoretical smelting energy requirements were calculated on the basis of pure ilmenite (FeO·TiO2) undergoing reduction at 1323 K An accurate material balance based on the smelting step is impossible owing to a lack of exiting stream weight data

Oxidation and Reduction of Iron-Titanium Oxides in

Abstract — Oxidation and Reduction of Iron-Titanium Oxides in Chemical Looping Combustion: A Phase-Chemical Description— Ilmenite (FeTiO 3) is being explored as an oxygen carrier in chemical looping processes Its reduction and oxidation are described by the …

Reduction of Ilmenite With Hydrogen - [PDF Document]

2080 Znd Eng Chem Res 1991,30, 2080-2087 Reduction of Ilmenite with Hydrogen Y Zhao and F Shadman* Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson,… Log In …

Studies on the upgrading of Indian ilmenites to synthetic

reduction of ilmenite is possible with coke at 800°e Shomate et al 7 carried out a thermodynami c study of reduction of ilmenite by carbon, carbon monoxide and hydrogen Yijay et ai8 studied pre-oxidation and hydrogen reduction of ilmenite in a fluidized bed reactor In a kinetic study on the reduction of ilmenite

Oxidation of Indian Ilmenite: Thermodynamics and Kinetics

In ilmenite, iron occurs in two different oxidation states (Fe2+ and Fen in significant amounts, and therefore, the oxygen potential is an important parameter in the oxidation reaction phase equilibria

Ilmenite Activation during Consecutive Redox Cycles in

Ilmenite is a common mineral found in metamorphic and igneous rocks mainly 24 composed by FeTiO3 In principle, when using ilmenite as oxygen carrier in a CLC process, the reduced 25 form consists in FeTiO3 (FeO + TiO2) and the most oxidized level is Fe2TiO5, which corresponds to 26 Fe2O3 + TiO2 The ilmenite used in this study is a concentrate from a natural ore

Morphological Changes and Reduction Mechanism for the …

ilmenite oxidation process has been reported in previous papers[10,11] Therefore, this article addresses the weak reduction process of the preoxidized ilmenite Actually, the weak reduction of the preoxidized ilmenite has not been fully clarified yet, although it has been adopted as a pretreatment process for several years

Ilmenite - Wikipedia

Ilmenite, also known as Manaccanite, is a titanium-iron oxide mineral with the idealized formula FeTiO 3It is a weakly magnetic black or steel-gray solid From a commercial perspective, ilmenite is the most important ore of titanium Ilmenite is the main source of titanium dioxide, which is used in paints, fabrics, plastics, paper, sunscreen, food and cosmetics

Titanium Dioxide Recovery from Ilmenite Contained in

TiO2, and the highest oxidation of ilmenite (82%) was achieved at 1, 000 °C for 1 h The carbothermic reduction with 15wt% carbon at The carbothermic reduction with 15wt% carbon at 950 °C for 2 h achieved a content of 6% TiO 2 and 21% ilmenite

An Electrochemical Study of the Reduction and Dissolution

of the Reduction and Dissolution of Ilmenite in Sulfuric Acid Solutions,Hydrometallurgy (2009), doi: 101016/jhydromet200902009 This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that …

Kinetics of redox reactions of ilmenite for chemical

The objective of this study was to establish the kinetic of both reduction and oxidation reactions taking place in the chemical-looping combustion (CLC) process using ilmenite as an oxygen carrier Because of the benefits of using of pre-oxidized

Process activated ilmenite as catalyst for cleaning of

The oxidized ilmenite is subsequently reduced, resulting in reduced iron oxide and iron metal which will act as catalysts for light hydrocarbons/tar reforming as well as water-gas shift reaction in the high steam content environment

Reactivity Investigation on Iron-Titanium Oxides for a

ported by XRD analysis Subsequent oxidation of the reduced mineral led to recover the starting oxide The stability of iron-titanium oxides was established over 35 looping cycles of oxidation-reduction, with an increase of 5% of oxygen transfer capacity and reactivity in the first 5 cycles and after that, ilmenite reactivity remained constant

WO2013029119A1 - Production of ferrotitanium by

One method is to preheat the reduced ilmenite to an intermediate temperature (eg in the range 400-1200°C), at which the reduced ilmenite may remain solid, and then to provide any additional heat necessary through electrical energy to maintain the required metal and slag fluidity This electrical energy may melt the reduced ilmenite